CPR: Cardiopulmonary Resusitation
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends
that all parents take a complete course in basic CPR and emergency treatment
of choking. Courses are offered by your local chapter of the American
Red Cross. For more information you can visit their web site at http://
www.redcross.org where you will find this and other helpful information.
In the interest of space, both infant and child over the age of 1 year
is listed here. Please note that infant procedure is marked by an asterisk
(*) and should be followed for children under
the age of 1 year.
THE ABC's of CPR
C=Circulation (pulse or heartbeat)
CPR can save your Child's life if administered immediately. Begin CPR
if your child is found in following conditions:
Your child is unresponsive, with no evidence of breathing.
Extreme difficulty in breathing (i.e. chest pain or obstruction of
Blue lips or skin (associated with extreme difficulty in breathing)
Rapid or labored breathing (grunting or pushing with each breath)
Drooling, or difficulty swallowing
1. DETERMINE UNRESPONSIVENESS
- Tap Child and speak loudly
- Turn Child onto back (on a firm surface)
- Call out loud for help (if you are alone, call for help or dial 911)
2. OPEN THE AIRWAY
* Infant - be cautious not to tilt the head
too far back. Simply point child's chin toward the ceiling as this could
block the airway in an infant or young child. *
3. CHECK BREATHING LOOK - LISTEN
- Look, for the chest rising and falling
- Listen, for the exchange of air by putting your ear to the mouth of
- Feel, for breath on your cheek or the feel of the chest rising and falling
If Breathing is present - Maintain airway
If Breathing is absent - Pinch the nose with one hand and place
your mouth over the child's mouth and give two slow breaths that make
the chest rise and fall.
* Infant - Place your mouth over both the
nose and mouth of your infant and give two puffs from
your cheeks. Just enough air to make the chest rise, being cautious not
to inflate the lungs too quickly or too much. *
- If the chest does not rise, re-open the airway and try breaths again
4. CHECK CIRCULATION (PULSE)
- Place two finger along side of child's neck just under the ear and
below the jawbone to feel for carotid artery pulse.
* Infant - place two fingers along the artery
in front of the elbow to feel for pulse. *
If Pulse is present - Continue rescue breaths
20 breaths (* Infant - puffs *)
/minute or 1 breath (* Infant - puffs
*) every 3 seconds
If Pulse is not present - Begin chest compressions (CPR)
- Place the heel of the hand over the lower third of the breastbone.
Press down 1 to 11/2 inches at a rate of 80 to 100 times per minute.
5 chest compressions followed by 1 breath (repeat for 1 minute)
- * Infant - Place two or three fingers
on the breastbone one finger width below the nipple line. Press down 1/2
to 1 inch, at a rate of about 100 times per minute. Be careful not
to apply too much pressure *
5 chest compressions followed by 1 puff (repeat for 1 minute)
5. RE-CHECK PULSE AND BREATHING (steps 3 &
- If you have not already phoned for help, do so now even if your child
is now breathing.
- Continue CPR until help arrives if child is still unresponsive.